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Terminating Gearman Workers in PHP
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I use Gearman as a queue/job server. An application gives it a job to do, and Gearman passes the job along to a worker that can finish it. Handling both synchronous and asynchronous tasks, the workers can be running anywhere -- the same server as Gearman, a server across the country, or even a workstation at a local office.

This makes things a bit complicated when it comes time to push out software or configuration changes to workers. When controlling workers locally, PHP's gearman module doesn't have a built-in way to terminate a worker without possibly interrupting a running job. And by design, Gearman cannot broadcast a job to every worker, nor send a generic job to a specific worker. I wanted a way where I could:

  • ask a worker to stop in the middle of its task (standard SIGINT)
  • ask a worker to stop after its current task
  • remotely terminate a worker
  • remotely terminate all workers

Even after doing a bit of research and reading posts there didn't seem to be a fully agreeable, developed solution. So, I took an afternoon to figure things out, with the working result ending up in a gist and some of the background below.

Graceful Termination

For the first part, it was simply a matter of handling a SIGTERM signal with PHP's pcntl module and setting a termination flag. The main worker loop could then check the flag every time it finished a job and cleanly exit. The Gearman library complicated things a bit though because while it's waiting for a job, none of the signals are acknowledged. The workaround was to use its non-blocking alternative. Although it still seemed to do some blocking, it was at least a configurable duration. Abbreviated, worker.php looks like:

<?php declare(ticks = 1);

$terminate = false;

pcntl_signal(SIGTERM, function () use (&$terminate) { $terminate = true; });

$worker = new GearmanWorker(); 

while ((!$terminate) && ($worker->work())) {

When sent a SIGTERM while running a job, it would wait to finish before exiting:

$ (php worker.php test1 &)
[15:45:33] READY test1 (25244)
$ php queue.php sleep 20
[15:45:37] ASLEEP test1
$ kill -s TERM 25244
[15:45:39] SIGTERM test1
[15:45:57] AWAKE test1
[15:45:57] EXIT test1

Remote Termination

Sometimes it's easier to remotely terminate workers when they need new code or configuration (and allowing a process manager to restart them). Since Gearman doesn't support sending a job to every single worker, an alternative is to have a terminate function for every worker (as mentioned in this response). Assuming every worker has a unique identifier, this becomes trivial:

    '_worker_' . $context['id'],
    function (GearmanJob $job) {
        if ('terminate' == $job->workload()) {
            posix_kill(getmypid(), SIGTERM);

From the console, it looks like:

$ (php worker.php test1 &)
[16:19:33] READY test1 (25372)
$ php queue.php _worker_test1 terminate
[16:19:38] SIGTERM test1
[16:19:38] EXIT test1

Batch Remote Termination

So now I can remotely terminate workers as needed. However, during deploys it's much more common to ask all the workers to restart. Using Gearman's protocol to find running workers I can distribute the termination job and then wait until all workers have received it. The result was terminate.php, working something like.

$ (php worker.php test1 &) ; (php worker.php test2 &) ; (php worker.php test3 &) ; (php worker.php test4 &)
[16:37:55] READY test1 (25479)
[16:37:55] READY test3 (25483)
[16:37:55] READY test2 (25481)
[16:37:55] READY test4 (25485)
$ php queue.php sleep 4 ; php queue.php sleep 8 ; php queue.php sleep 16
[16:37:57] ASLEEP test2
[16:37:57] ASLEEP test3
[16:37:57] ASLEEP test4
$ php terminate.php
[16:37:59] UP test4
[16:37:59] UP test3
[16:37:59] UP test2
[16:37:59] UP test1
[16:37:59] SIGTERM test1
[16:37:59] EXIT test1
[16:37:59] DOWN test1
[16:38:01] AWAKE test2
[16:38:01] SIGTERM test2
[16:38:01] EXIT test2
[16:38:01] DOWN test2
[16:38:05] AWAKE test3
[16:38:05] SIGTERM test3
[16:38:05] EXIT test3
[16:38:05] DOWN test3
[16:38:08] waiting for: test4
[16:38:13] AWAKE test4
[16:38:13] SIGTERM test4
[16:38:13] EXIT test4
[16:38:13] DOWN test4


The result is an extra bit of code, but it makes automating tasks, especially around deploys, much easier. This really just demonstrates one method of creating an internal workers API - termination is just one possibility. Other more complex possibilities could be self-performing updates, lighter config reloads (instead of full restarts), or dynamically registering/unregistering functions depending on application load.